Archivo de la categoria ‘Regulatorio’

El papel del consumidor en los mercados eléctricos, a debate.

Con el título “Consumidores: actores activos y centrales del mercado eléctrico del futuro”, se desarrolló el viernes 12 de mayo la jornada que los clubs de ESADE Alumni de Energía y Medio Ambiente por una parte, y de Derecho por otra, organizaron con la colaboración de ESADE Law School y en la que tuve el gusto de participar.
Tras la bienvenida por parte de Rafa Matas, presidente del Club Derecho que se refirió al compromiso de Alumni con el debate riguroso de cuestiones de actualidad, y la presentación de la Jornada por Manuel Férez, profesor de Derecho Público de la Facultad, que remarcó el propósito de analizar las implicaciones que para los que interactúan en los mercados eléctricos en España y en particular para sus usuarios tiene el paquete de invierno, se desarrollaron dos mesas redondas.
La primera mesa moderada por Robert Navarro, vicepresidente del Club de Energía y Medio Ambiente, que contextualizó las intervenciones de Ferran Tarradellas, portavoz para asuntos de Energía de la Comisión Europea en España y director de la representación en Barcelona y Carmen Gimeno, socia de Prat Rubí Advocats y secretaria general de GEODE. La segunda, que tuve el privilegio de moderar, con la participación de Joan Vila, director de LC Paper y presidente de la Comisión de Energía de PIMEC; Santi Martinez, director ejecutivo de Estabanell y Pahisa Energia; Juan José Alba, director de regulación de ENDESA para España y Portugal y, finalmente, Pep Salas, ingeniero especialista en redes eléctricas inteligentes.
Ante la dificultad de resumir las muchas e interesantes argumentaciones y comentarios que tuvieron lugar en la Jornada, prevista de 9 a 12 y que, ante el cúmulo de intervenciones y preguntas de los participantes se prolongó hasta las 12.30, reseñaré algunas de las consideraciones de los ponentes que, a mí, particularmente, me parecen más relevantes.
La vinculación a la Energía de la Comunidad Europea desde sus mismos orígenes, con el Tratado del Carbón y del Acero (1) que entró en vigor en 1952 y el de la Energía Atómica o Euratom (2), que lo hizo en 1958, fue subrayada por Ferran Tarradellas, para a continuación recordar que la denominada Unión de la Energía es una de las diez prioridades de la actual Comisión, que ha explicitado el objetivo que Europa lidere la transición energética. Un liderazgo que requiere, como condición necesaria, un marco regulador estable y eficaz, propósito que justifica el paquete de ocho propuestas de modificación normativa del sector eléctrico, aprobado el pasado 30 de noviembre con la denominación Clean Energy for All Europeans. Un conjunto de propuestas que han entrado en el proceso negociador entre los dos colegisladores comunitarios, el Consejo, que reúne a los Estados miembros (EM) y el Parlamento. Read the rest of this entry »

Administrativo, Derecho y sociedad, Regulatorio | , , Permalink

El autoconsumo eléctrico y la transformación del modelo energético

La jornada AUTOCONSUMO ELÉCTRICO, prácticas y requisitos para un desarrollo con éxito, organizada por la Facultad de Derecho de ESADE  Business & Law School (Universitat Ramon Llull) en colaboración con Prat Rubí Advocats, que tuvo lugar el 27 de mayo reunió a unos 70 profesionales de, fundamentalmente, los sectores energético, industrial y legal.
En la primera mesa, moderada por el Dr. Manuel Férez Fernández profesor de Derecho público de la Facultad, la presentación inicial corrió a cargo de Carmen Gimeno, socia del antes mencionado despacho y secretaria general de GEODE, asociación que representa los intereses de empresas de distribución de electricidad y gas de ámbito local.

La ponente expuso los objetivos y conclusiones de la  comunicación de la Comisión Europea de 15 de julio de 2015  que lleva por título “Proveyendo un nuevo trato para los consumidores de energía”. La combinación de generación descentralizada y las opciones de almacenamiento pueden habilitar a los consumidores a llegar a ser sus propios proveedores y gestores de sus necesidades energéticas o de una parte de las mismas y reducir sus facturas de energía.  Esta afirmación del documento se acompaña con la que la generación descentralizada de energía renovable, puede complementar las fuentes de generación centralizada y ayudar a reducir las pérdidas y la congestión de la red, ahorrando costes.

Read the rest of this entry »

Actualidad jurídica, Administrativo, Derecho y sociedad, Regulatorio | Permalink

From candles to sun

On September 4, 1882, Edison illuminating company launched the first electrical generation. Today large power plants are heirs of this modest station, located on Pearl Street in Manhattan that, powered by coal, supplied power to 400 bulbs from a total of 82 customers.

In the mid-20th century was admitted as certain that the electricity service was a natural monopoly, which only could run with few providers to get adequate pay for large investments required in generation and grid. So, vertically integrated companies from production, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity, mostly in public hands, were created.  The faith in the market as optimal resources organizer, materialized in legislation which in the 1990s tried to introduce competition in that market. The way to achieve it was to privatize entirely, as in Spain, or partly, as in France, those utilities.   Competition was only limitedly reached and settled on these foundations, their business model has generated continuous and abundant benefits to its shareholders that have been accompanied, generally speaking, with improvements in the service’ quality even not always synchronized at the same time. Read the rest of this entry »

Administrativo, Regulatorio | Permalink

On Thalidomide Tragedy and the duty to compensate victims

To prevent, to detect and assessing adverse reactions from drugs is subject to the rules of pharmacovigilance. The 2010/84 directive sets the rules that govern the European Union, being the European Medicines Agency, in coordination with the health authorities of the States members, responsible for ensuring the Community dimension of the surveillance. The reciprocal recognition and the existence of a large market whose solvency largely depends on State health services, is allowing a drug to be distributed in another country and recover their development costs. The protection of public health justifies this delimitation of the principle of free enterprise in a market economy, which offers us a reasonable peace of mind in the consumption of drugs. Read the rest of this entry »

Administrativo, Derechos Humanos, Máster en Abogacía, Regulatorio | , , Permalink

Public Budget and Entrepreneurial State

Innovation and entrepreneurship as a source of economic growth are an undisputed recipe. Private entrepreneurs, Steve Jobs as the archetype, and the venture capital are presented as examples to follow.

Less frequent it is to recognize the role of the State, with resources provided by taxpayers, as a key player on most important innovations. This is what professor Mariana Mazzucato does brilliantly in her book “The Entrepreneurial State”. Thus, says that 12 fundamental technologies for work the iPhone and iPads, from Internet to mobile technology networks and liquid crystal screens and lithium batteries, are result of publicly funded research. The undisputed genius of Jobs consisted in integrating them and present them in extremely attractive forms for customers, transforming Apple in a corporate icon. Read the rest of this entry »

Actualidad jurídica, Internacional, Regulatorio | , , , , , , , Permalink

Neither wind nor demand, just competition

Do not pass any day without news regarding an increase in the power system economic deficit “Tariff deficit”. No day also without rising bills from the power utilities. In July, the Royal Decree-Law 9/2013 to ensure the system financial strength attributed it to levels of rainfall and wind above the average and contraction in demand. December last weeks, allegedly little rain, little wind and higher demand. It is said that anything can be deduced from a contradiction. As well, I gather that it is not the wind or the demand, but competition or, to be precise, its absence in the market, that has caused these shocks. Read the rest of this entry »

Regulatorio | , , , , Permalink

Credit agencies and taxation without representation

The Financial Times Lex Column discusses on March 11 Moody’s decision to cut the Spanish sovereign debt rate (“Spain downgrade”). As the article points out, one of the consequences that such a decision implies is that “the cost of the capital required to put into the cajas will be commensurately higher”. This increase of borrowing costs will offset tax increases and savings in public services decided by governments and parliaments (Central and Regional’s) in Spain; taxes and savings that have direct effects on the citizen’s lives. Days before, we assisted to the Greece downgrade and today, March 16, to Portugal’s one.

On March 11 too, the economic affairs commissioner, Olli Rehn, and the commissioner in charge of financial services, Michel Barnier, said in a joint statement that “The last few days highlight once again how important (is) a more and better regulated environment for ratings,” (..)”Our services are now working as quickly as possible” on a package of reform proposals, “due before the end of the summer.”

I think that the ratings agencies’ decisions involve some political consequences that deserve some additional comments. This transfer of resources from taxpayers to bond investors seems to me a contemporary version of the classical “Taxation without representation”. As we know, in his negative version: “No taxation without representation” was the slogan originated in the 1750s and 1760s. It summarized an essential grievance of the British colonists in the American colonies that qualified as unconstitutional the laws taxing them approved in the distant Westminster’s Parliament. In the present case, no Parliament has approved the measure. A resolution adopted by a private enterprise on supposedly technical basis has produced such an effect.

As professors Costas Milas (Keele Management School, Keele University, Staffs, UK) and Theo Panagiotidis (Lecturer, University of Macedonia and Visiting Research Fellow, Hellenic Observatory, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK), highlighted in a letter to Editor in the same newspaper and day: Recent academic work published by the  International Journal of Finance and Economics suggests that the credit decisions made by the three main credit rating agencies (Moody’s Investors Service, Standard & Poor’s and Fitch Ratings) are affected by the following economic factors: per capita gross domestic product, GDP growth rate, government deficit, public debt, amount of foreign exchange reserves and the country’s history of default. According to the research, the above economic factors explain up to 40 per cent of the decisions made by the credit rating agencies leaving the majority of their decisions unexplained (…)”

On other words: there’s a big slice of opacity in these decisions.

If shareholders in rating agencies can invest in the bond’s market and can get gains from downgrades, some questions could arise on the neutrality of their decisions. A financial system cannot run smoothly when a shadow of doubt darkens rating decisions. One thing is to kill the messenger and other let the messenger kill you. The case for a reform in depth of rating agencies is urgent. The sooner, the better.

 
Dr. Enric R.Bartlett Castellà
ESADE Law School (URL).

Regulation (EC) No 1060/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 on credit rating agencies

Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL On amending Regulation (EC) No 1060/2009 on credit rating agencies.COM (2010) 289

 Seguimiento interinstitucional del documento COM (2010) 289

Centro de Documentación Europea, Regulatorio | , , , , Permalink